Permanent grass cover may be desirable between tree rows for erosion control, weed suppression, snow catch, wildlife use, and other environmental benefits. Tree plantings should be maintained weed free within the rows (cultivation, chemical, or fabric) 3 to 5 feet on each side, but large areas between the rows may be seeded to less competitive, shallow rooting warm-season bunchgrasses such as blue grama and/or sideoats grama. These native warm-season species are dormant during the early growing season and do not compete for moisture during this critical tree growth period. Another benefit of warm-season species is the opportunity to apply glyphosate herbicide to cool-season grasses or weeds (bromegrass, quackgrass, dandelions, etc.) when the blue grama and sideoats grama are dormant in early spring and late fall. Grass should be seeded the year of tree planting when using fabric, or anytime before trees become too crowded for equipment use (4 to 8 years of age), when fabric is not used.